Nature Human Relationship – Introduction

This section is designed to foster appreciation and insight that will – hopefully – lead to novel ways to build a better relationship between human beings and Nature. This section is also atypical in that it is more often understood through, though by no means exclusively, the arts, rather than the sciences, which predominate in sections 2-10.

The rationale for the above approach is a belief that we cannot begin to build a better relationship without determining where we are, individually, collectively, past and present, in the great kaleidoscope of responses to the natural world, nor can we hope to be effective if we don’t have an idea of where we want to go. Of course, this is much easier said than done as we not only have multiple and complex responses to Nature individually, we have diverse cultural responses that are refracted through time and place.

(archeologyandart/photos. Mammoth ivory bird 33,000 years old, Hohle Fels Cave, Germany)

Despite the impossibility of building a ‘house’ on such shifting sand, I have tried to develop a schema of our responses to Nature (T10: The Diversity of the Nature-Human Relationship – see below) whose axes are: scale (both temporal and spatial), human-centric versus nature-centric attitudes, and positive versus negative emotions. All the items within Section 1 could be placed in one or several places on the schema and, initially, I was going to try to do just that, but after some thought I believed this to be too prescriptive. As such I leave it to the reader to decide if the schema helps at all, and if so, where the responses listed lie, and indeed, where readers think their attitudes would be located.

To perhaps assist the process, and just as an example, I think my place on the schema probably lies somewhere over to the top right of the diagram, in the top right quadrant. I think A.D. Hope’s magnificent poem ‘The Death of the Bird’ (see 1.9.10) most closely resembles my understanding of the natural world, most nearly approximates my identification with Romanticism and its cosmic perspective of the scientist, warmed by the human heart. It is the marriage of wonder and awe with love and beauty. I have tentatively tried to place Hope’s poem on the chart in the position(s) that I think represent this and I hope readers will try to do the same with their understandings.

I am all too aware that my identification as some sort of embarrassing ‘neo-Romantic’ condemns me to utter dagginess (Australian expression for nerdiness; old-fashionedness; unsophistication), but I do think the way forward for a better Nature-human relationship is in, and towards, the top right quadrant of the diagram, where Nature is recognised as an intrinsic entity and not a chattel, and where emotions are ones of joy, comfort and wonder. I think this is where ‘the house’ has to be built.

 

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1.1.1. The Cry of a Growing Silence

This beautiful piece is about the loss of birds, of wonder and of boyhood in Anson’s home place – the northern plains of Victoria. I think the opening image: “Jigsaw pieces of new silence begin to join” is as poignant a metaphor of environment...

1.1.2. In Praise of Pardalotes

Keeping with the bird theme (sorry, I am a birdwatcher since childhood) is this lovely little piece by John Woinarski who studied pardalotes for decades. John celebrates their tiny, dumpy, yet purposeful beauty, and the gift of their presence and ...

1.1.3. More Greed and More Loneliness

Broadening the outlook to the human condition and a sickness at the heart of modern society, Michael Leunig names our delusions and our disease as only he can. This article is the first time I can remember the obeisance to the economy being called...

1.1.4. The Really Inconvenient Truth

It is awkward intruding one’s own musings with such fine company. Such an act can be seen as a piece of egotistical opportunism, or even a shallow trick, like that played by the supermarkets when they package up desirable fruit and vegetables with...

1.1.5. Running out of Gas

Keeping to the big picture, Growthbusters produced this excellent and wide-ranging podcast in 2019 that seeks both to cover the big issues for the environment and address their deeper causes. Interviewer and text: Dave Gardner “Our two guest...

1.1.6. Submission to Victorian Government Extinction Inquiry

Deliberately moving between scales, this submission to the Victorian Government Extinction Inquiry by local friend, Heinz, skilfully joins the personal with the institutional, the global with the ‘backyard’ (in this case, the Western District of V...

1.1.7. Understanding the Challenges of Avoiding a Ghastly Future

Extending the idea of a submission on the state of the environment and extinction, the following paper moves from Heinz’s more personal and local perspective to that of a global outlook. As such, this most powerful of papers could have been includ...

1.1.8. Capitalism, the Doomsday Machine

In a typically thoughtful and incisive piece, Richard Heinberg tackles the global belief system – capitalism – and finds that “the machine is still on its path to world annihilation”. He then neatly summarises four major responses to the looming c...

1.1.9. Birds are a Liberation that Never Ends

This delightful piece by Richard Flanagan captures as well as anything I’ve read the great gift and sheer joy of birds: “Few things induce volts of happiness in me like the common cranky fan (Grey Fantail) when it meets me near the water tank and ...

1.1.10. Killing Nature in the Mind

I am lucky enough to look out on this from my loungeroom window every day. These great rock ranges began forming 400 million years ago and Mt Abrupt’s obdurate slab face mocks my petty existence. I suppose I should be angry about this, feel slight...

1.2.1. Quantum Memories 2020

I walked into the National Gallery of Victoria’s Triennial Exhibition early in 2021 and was confronted by a massive screen several storeys high, full of the most amazing, swirling, shapes and colours. One moment I thought I was looking at footage ...

1.2.2. Extinction Studies

When in Hobart early in 2020 I went into the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery and saw Lucienne Rickard working on a huge, black and white, sketch of a Red Colobus monkey. The Colobus was larger than Rickard, the artist, and she was meticulously sk...

1.2.3. World Species Market

I saw this installation at Federation Square, Melbourne, over a decade ago. It was dusk, and dominating the Square was a huge stock-market screen with what at first glance looked like lists of stocks and their flickering, changing, share prices. J...

1.2.4. Of All the People in All the World

This is a strange inclusion because I never saw it. I very much wanted to, but at the time (2006) I couldn’t get to The Meat Market in North Melbourne to see it. Nonetheless, I spoke to people who did and was sufficiently taken by its cleverness a...

1.2.5. Limestone Bird

This is my partner’s, but I am lucky enough to have it sit on the shelf behind me while at the computer and I love its quiet watchfulness as I type away, my keyboard work “Full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing”! It is about a foot (30 cm) ...

1.2.6. Chauvet Cave Paintings

These images do literally take one’s breath away. Imagine being the three French cavers who discovered the images in 1994 after the caves had been largely sealed off for millenia? This was time travel, as they entered a mysterious world of 35,000 ...

1.2.7. Extinctions 2020

This is a wonderful, very modern, take on the Chauvet wall friezes. In a great floor-to-ceiling wrap-around spiral we see dozens of life forms intertwined. Just when we delight in identifying the lily next to the leopard entangled with the whale, ...

1.2.8. Eagle (‘Bunjil’)

Massive, implacable, eternal, Bunjil the Eagle stares out with an unimpressed eye at man’s latest fripperies in central Melbourne, Australia. Standing 25 metres tall on a plinth weighing 90 tonnes, Bunjil was created by sculptor Bruce Armstrong ou...

1.2.9. Paper Kangaroos and Birds

“Anything that reminds us that we are a part of Nature seems beautiful and essential to me”. This quote comes at the end of the brief four-minute video - and I think we can say that Anna has been more than successful in this endeavour. ABC Arts...

1.3.1. The Overstory

Age and hubris led me to believe that I would not have my fundamental understanding of the natural world changed significantly at this stage of my life - wrong! Richard Powers’ brilliant novel, ‘The Overstory’, well and truly punctured my conceit....

1.3.2. The Principles of Political Economy 

At the height of the Industrial Revolution and of British colonial power, when the world was awash with human triumphalism, only a truly independent genius could have the intellect and courage to stand apart and say: “It is scarcely necessary t...

1.3.3. Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the World

‘Cod’ brilliantly charts the remorseless discovery, exploitation and decline of Cod fisheries around the world and across the ages. Once one of the most numerous fish ever to live in the sea, now reduced to a sorry remnant of its former abundance,...

1.3.4. Collision Course: Endless Growth on a Finite Planet

Anyone with a remotely serious interest in the environment must read this book. I can think of no other work that so completely and thoroughly charts the development of our current predicament, so carefully follows the trail of the world-dominatin...

1.3.5. Blueprint for a Green Economy

Kerryn Higgs and others see growth as the ultimate problem for the environment, as well as the absolute core of the capitalist machine; so much so that no amount of tinkering will make it ‘work’ for a healthy, diverse and sustainable future. By co...

1.3.6. Foxspell

Now for something completely different (with apologies to Monty Python). ‘Foxspell’ has that somewhat stultifying categorisation of ‘Young Adult Fiction’, but don’t be put off by that, nor that it is a novel with doses of magical realism. It is...

1.3.7. Kindred: A Cradle Mountain Love Story

Tasmania is a marvellous place and Cradle Mountain is one of its jewels. Gustav Weindorfer and Kate Cowle were amongst the first Europeans to explore the area and to introduce it to the outside world. Dragging scraps of wood and tin (and baths!) i...

1.3.8. The Limits to Growth (and the 30-Year Update)

Despite ‘Limits to Growth’ being published nearly 50 years ago, I am constantly amazed at how accurate their predictions and models have been, especially as it was achieved at a time of very limited computing power, and of patchy scientific data o...

1.3.9. Among the Elephants

I read ‘Among the Elephants’ when I was 18 and I so wanted be Iain Douglas-Hamilton, or Oria Douglas-Hamilton, or even their newly-born daughter, Saba! They lived this impossibly exotic life, literally among the elephants, at Lake Manyara National...

1.3.10. The Books of Cormac McCarthy, Tim Winton and Carl Hiaasen

I realise it is a cheat to have three authors and numerous books as the last inclusion at #10, but I couldn’t split these three, nor pick out any one book in particular, as their excellent ‘environmental’ writing pervades all that they do. Much...

1.5.1. King Kong 1933, 1976, 1986, 1998, 2005, 2017

The still above is from the 1933 classic, and watching it elicits a weird mix of emotions; from humour, to curiosity, to engagement, to sadness. There’s much that is brutal and clunky in the original, but it somehow draws the viewer in and Kong’s ...

1.5.2. My Octopus Teacher

This is a truly special documentary which starts so quietly you’d think it impossible to leave the viewer at the end emotionally stunned, as well as joyous. I am still thinking about it almost a year after watching it and I think it will remain wi...

1.5.3. Quoll Farm ABC

There is much of ‘My Octopus Teacher’ in ‘Quoll Farm’, though the locations could hardly be more different: terrestrial, instead of aquatic; Tasmania rather than South Africa; an altered farm landscape instead of a largely intact ocean environment...

1.5.4. Etosha: Africa’s Untamed Wilderness. Living Edens Series

It is almost impossible to choose favourites, let alone a favourite, Nature documentary, they are so outstandingly shot and produced. Nonetheless, I will try to list one that I have never forgotten from years ago (1998) because of the way it trans...

1.5.5. Nature Walkabout

I include ‘Nature Walkabout’ both as a personal indulgence and as a representative of the times, and I believe, of several similar TV series and documentaries shown around the world in the ‘60s. (I look forward to readers’ examples of these). T...

1.5.6. Kangaroo: A Love-Hate Story

This is a very difficult documentary to include, not because of any doubts as to its quality or accuracy, but because the content is often confronting, and because of the embarrassment you will feel if you are an Australian. As the New South Wales...

1.5.7. Life on Earth: A Natural History

Just as with Ansel Adams’ wonderful photography (see 1.8.5), or William Blake’s ‘Tyger’ (1.9.7), it would be mean-spirited to leave out ‘Life on Earth’ just because it is so well-known. And well known it is, with an estimated 500 million people se...

1.5.8. Roger Swainston: Drawn to Water

This is a fascinating story of intense focus, exquisite skill, and most importantly, the ability to see life. When I look at a close-up of an illustration of a lobster carapace by Roger I can’t believe he’s drawn it: the detail and the irridescenc...

1.5.9. Off Track: Live Long, Little Lizard

After the ABC’s Natural History Unit was shamefully closed in 2007 there has been precious little for lovers of Nature in this, one of the world’s ‘megadiverse’ countries, and with the globe’s highest number of unique species2. Insid...

1.5.10. Hooked on Growth

Dave Gardner is the perfect heretic: softly-spoken, mild-mannered, unflappable, and with a sense of humour, very hard to demonise and marginalise as ‘crazy’, ‘eccentric’, ‘dangerous’, ‘racist’, or ‘anti-people’. Heretics are, at best, dismissed, a...

1.6.1. Where Song Began

I first met Anthony several years ago when he visited Port Fairy – a small coastal town near where I live in western Victoria – to do a solo performance of several Bach pieces on his wonderful old cello. It was a cold day in a small hall, but Anth...

1.6.2. The Lark Ascending

The Lark Ascending is so beautiful it hurts! It is magical, shining, transcendent. Based on the poem of the same name by George Meredith: “And ever winging up and up, Our valley is his golden cup, And he the wine which overflows.” A...

1.6.3. Mass for the Endangered

I can do little better than quote from the website1: “Snider’s Mass, with a libretto by poet/writer Nathaniel Bellows, is a celebration of, and an elegy for, the natural world—animals, plants, insects, the planet itself—an appeal for gr...

1.6.4. Endling

An endling is the last survivor of a species. (Think of poor Lonesome George, the last Pinta Island Tortoise on the Galapagos Islands who died at age 102. He lived as the last of his species until 2012). I can no better describe this beautiful ...

1.7.1 The Wharncliffe Hours: The Annunciation of the Shepherds

This is both an interesting piece in itself, and also a fine example of much early painting of Nature and our relationship to it. Books of Hours were beautiful prayer books of medieval times and the Wharncliffe Hours originated in France in the...

1.7.2 View in the Grampians from the top of the Serra Range

This is an enlargement of the central section of this big canvas (69 x 92 cm). It takes you straight into the great clefts and crags of the mountains near my home in western Victoria, Australia. But, much more than a personal reference, this is...

1.7.3 The Repast of the Lion

With Rousseau I feel that initial responses are misleading. At first, one is carried away by the lushness, all the green vegetation and gorgeous fruits. The style of naïve primitivism also misleads one to a position of almost cartoonish optimism a...

1.7.4 Colonial Evening – Landscape after George Raper

It would be too simplistic to say that an ‘other’, intrinsic Nature can be only either sublime (Von Guerard) or fearful (Rousseau): it can be viewed through many more prisms than those. Philip Davey’s Colonial Evening is quite a different perspect...

1.7.5 The Rabbiters

 If Nature is to Philip Davey a dream, an enchanting dream, then to Russell Drysdale it is a nightmare. His paintings of Depression-era Australia are surreal, grotesque and confronting. ‘The bush’ is stripped bare by drought, pests (in this case r...

1.7.6 Explorer Attacked by Parrots

Superficially similar to Drysdale’s crushing surrealism in tone and block-like structure, Albert Tucker’s ‘Explorer Attacked by Parrots’ is more fascinated observation, humourous comment upon a collision: the collision of European myth and civilis...

1.7.7 Red Landscape

Briefly, Williams’ vast, featureless landscapes and earth tones have us back in the fatalistic ‘eternity’ of Drysdale. There is something dwarfing, eternal and elegiac about them as the horizon recedes forever and the semi-aerial view reveals the ...

1.7.8 Princess Parrot/Sceptre Banksia

I feel it wouldn’t be fair to have a section on ‘Nature paintings’ that doesn’t include scientific wildlife and botanical artists. Theirs is such a rich field and they have made such an important contribution to our understanding and appreciation ...

1.7.9 Water Dreaming for Two Children

This image shows us a very different sensibility from that of how ‘the west’ sees Nature. Johnny Tjupurrula was an Aboriginal man who lived at Papunya in Australia’s remote Outback. I am the first to admit that, try as I might, I find interpreting...

1.8.1. Let Hopes and Dreams be Things we can Achieve

I have talked about this image in Articles 1.1.4. Much more than being a beautiful photograph of a mountain scene, I think it says a great deal about the challenges and ambiguities of our relationship with Nature. In the background is wild,...

1.8.2. Jacky Winter

Jacky Winters are modest little birds: about the size of a House Sparrow, they live in the woodlands of Australia and Papua New Guinea and can be seen often sitting on stumps (as here), waggling their tails, and going on acrobatic flights after in...

1.8.3. Morning Mist, Rock Island Bend, Franklin River

You are not so much welcomed into Peter Dombrovskis’ famous photograph of Rock Island Bend on the Franklin River in Tasmania, as drawn in, perhaps in thrall, by its mystery. It is dark, and you are deep within a prehistoric gorge with mist, wet gr...

1.8.4. Where Elephants Walk

Whereas ‘the other’ of Rock Island Bend is deeply mysterious and perhaps even cold with its great, wet black rocks, grey mist and soggy temperate rainforest, the Nature of Nicole Emanuel and Michael Rayner1 is the exact opposite: not re...

1.8.5. Clearing Winter Storm, Yosemite Park

It would have been churlish to not have included an Ansel Adams in the collection, no matter how popular his photographs are, and how almost cliched their use has become. There is little I can add to all that has been written about his peerless...

1.8.6. Bush Stone-Curlew

This is one of my favourite photographs - of a Bush Stone-Curlew (see also Articles 1.1.1). The photograph was taken by Don Hunt for an excellent little book called ‘The Bush Stone-Curlew in Northern Victoria’1. At first glance you can ...

1.8.7. Alpine Revelation

Extending the theme of holistic Nature and symmetry, I suggest Andrea Zampatti’s exceptional shot of Ibex in the European Alps. This was a finalist in the 2020 Wildlife Photographer of the Year, run by the British Natural History Museum: Alpine Re...

1.8.8. The Dam-Climbing Ibex

From Ibex in a wild setting to Ibex in a greatly altered environment, friend Heinz de Chelard has contributed the following photograph and text for comparison. “Alpine Ibex climbing the wall of Cingino Dam in northern Italy may be seen by some ...

1.8.9. Earthrise

Photo and text from Guest contributor Heinz de Chelard. “Choosing photos that invoke an emotional reverence for Nature to include in the Thylacine 10 selection may be looked upon as a mind- bogglingly difficult task; one made almost impossible ...

1.8.10. Anna’s Hummingbird Bathing on Leaf

The Audubon Society posted this magical shot in July 2022. Their commentary ran: “One day, Michael Armour-Johnson (@wildphotomike) stumbled across this Anna’s Hummingbird while standing outside on a third-floor patio, camera gear at hand, in a ...

1.9.1. Snake

A snake came to my water-trough On a hot, hot day, and I in pyjamas for the heat, To drink there. In the deep, strange-scented shade of the great dark carob tree I came down the steps with my pitcher And must wait, must stand and wait, for ...

1.9.2. Essay

Carruth, like Lawrence’s ‘Snake’, says: “My poems, I think, exist in a state of tension between the love of natural beauty and the fear of natural nothingness or absurdity”1, but there is almost none of this tension in his poem, ‘Essay’...

1.9.3. Endymion

A thing of beauty is a joy for ever: Its loveliness increases; it will never Pass into nothingness; but still will keep A bower quiet for us, and a sleep Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing. Therefore, on every morrow, are w...

1.9.4. The Smoker Parrots

The reefs have run out and the little Dim villages sit out in the cold; But up in the north-west the Smokers Have taken the gold. It is a dry land, and any Good morning is spring in the air. The Smokers come out of the sunlight, And leave...

1.9.5. Pied Beauty

Glory be to God for dappled things – For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow; For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim; Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches’ wings; Landscape plotted and pieced – fold, fallow, and plough; And ...

1.9.6. Hawk Roosting

I sit in the top of the wood, my eyes closed. Inaction, no falsifying dream Between my hooked head and hooked feet: Or in sleep rehearse perfect kills and eat. The convenience of the high trees! The air's buoyancy and the sun's ray Are of ...

1.9.7. The Tyger

As with Ansell Adams’ wonderful landscape photographs (see 1.8.5 ‘Photographs’), The Tyger is so famous and so much has been written about it that one is tempted not to include it, but to do so would be to miss out on its unique contribution. T...

1.9.8. The Windhover

To Christ our Lord I caught this morning morning's minion, king- dom of daylight's dauphin, dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon, in his riding Of the rolling level underneath him steady air, and striding High there, how he rung upon the rein of a wimpl...

1.9.9. The Eagle

He clasps the crag with crooked hands; Close to the sun in lonely lands, Ring'd with the azure world, he stands. The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls; He watches from his mountain walls, And like a thunderbolt he falls.   ‘The Eag...

1.9.10. The Death of the Bird

For every bird there is this last migration; Once more the cooling year kindles her heart; With a warm passage to the summer station Love pricks the course in lights across the chart. Year after year a speck on the map, divided By a whole h...

1.10.1. Introduction and Soul Search – Sacred Landscapes Series

This seems a strange inclusion in Section 1 which so far has presented physical creations – paintings, poems, music, etc – that offer insight and appreciation of the Nature-human relationship. Often, these insights have been informed by science, b...

1.10.2. Encyclical on the Environment: Laudato Si’ – On Care for our Common Home

This is in many ways an extraordinary document. Stretching to 42, 000 words it covers sources from, “St. Francis of Assisi and St. Bonaventure, as well as St. Thomas Aquinas, but also to Eastern Christian traditions. It even quotes a Sufi Mystic. ...

1.10.3. Soul Search: A Grounded Theology

It is a bit embarrassing to be so shamelessly mining Meredith Lake’s fine work on Radio National, ABC Australia, again! (sorry Meredith, I hope you see it as a compliment), but the previous programs and Pope Francis’ encyclical are largely, but by...

1.10.4. Islam and Nature

Below is an extraordinary new building in Cambridge, England: Cambridge Mosque. I was in Cambridge for a year in 1979 and if you’d told me then that in 2021 there would be a grand mosque, with capacity for 1000 people, on the Mill Road, I would ha...

1.10.5. Hinduism and Nature

If, as I suggested, spiritual and religious responses to the environment are a topic as huge as the ocean, then Hinduism must surely qualify as a sea. It is so diverse, diffuse and old that I imagine even practising Hindus find it difficult to gra...

1.10.6. Soul Search: Jane Goodall On Humanity and Hope

Jane Goodall is a fascinating person enough to make this podcast worth including, but I was particularly interested in her spiritual insights here and how they have arisen, though not exclusively, from and within Nature. She is not, as far as I...

Explore Other Sections

1. Build the Nature-Human Relationship
1. Build the Nature-Human Relationship 1.1 Articles 1.2 Art Installations 1.3 Books 1.4 Buildings 1.5 Film, Documentaries, Podcasts 1.6 Music 1.7 Paintings 1.8 Photographs 1.9 Poems 1.10 Spiritual Responses
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1. Build the Nature-Human Relationship

This section is designed to foster appreciation and insight that will – hopefully – lead to novel ways to build a better relationship between human beings and Nature. This section is also atypical ...
2. Reduce Consumption
2. Reduce Consumption

2. Reduce Consumption

I hope Reneé Descartes would forgive us for saying that, at least for the modern world, he was wrong.  When, in 1637, he said: “I think, therefore I am”, he could not have anticipated that the majo...
3. Replace God of Growth with God of Quality
3. Replace God of Growth with God of Quality

3. Replace God of Growth with God of Quality

In a supposedly secular age there has arisen a global religion and god like never before, a religion whose reach and power makes every other belief system before it seem pitiful and insignificant: ...
4. Work, Volunteer, Act for the Environment
4. Work, Volunteer, Act for the Environment

4. Work, Volunteer, Act for the Environment

What we do in our day-to-day lives can have great impact. Section Four divides up these actions into three groups – Work (4.2 & 4.3), Volunteering (4.4), and Action, e.g. voting, protesting, et...
5. Reduce Population
5. Reduce Population

5. Reduce Population

Even on top of Mt. Everest, in one of the remotest, most difficult places on earth, there is a great traffic-jam of people jostling for position. And yet, ever more vociferously, we deny that overp...
6. Ensure Media Acknowledgement of Environmental Context
6. Ensure Media Acknowledgement of Environmental Context

6. Ensure Media Acknowledgement of Environmental Context

The media is one of the three, great ‘poles’ of power in the world (alongside political and corporate power) and how they frame and present ‘the environment’ has a profound effect on how we respond...
7. Stop Further Loss of Natural Habitat and Species
7. Stop Further Loss of Natural Habitat and Species

7. Stop Further Loss of Natural Habitat and Species

New York is an exciting, mesmerising place. Human culture is extraordinary and often wonderful. Our powers of transformation of the natural world seem limitless. The trouble is, we don’t seem to be...
8. Assist Energy Descent and Transition
8. Assist Energy Descent and Transition

8. Assist Energy Descent and Transition

Our current energy largesse is an extraordinary ‘gift’, an unprecedented gift of the ages; millions of years to produce and from millions of years ago. Coal, oil and gas, forming...
9. Support New, Environmentally-Aware, Economic Systems
9. Support New, Environmentally-Aware, Economic Systems

9. Support New, Environmentally-Aware, Economic Systems

Just as with the previous section – ‘Energy’ – which is, inescapably, all about fossil fuels so pre-eminent and extraordinary has been their dominance and transformation of the world in the last 20...
10. Reduce Wastes to the Rate of Natural Assimilation
10. Reduce Wastes to the Rate of Natural Assimilation

10. Reduce Wastes to the Rate of Natural Assimilation

Section 10 will attempt to organise this enormous topic by addressing the context and status of pollution in 10.2, before focussing in on air pollution; particularly greenhouse gas pollution and cl...